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After , its major use was as a large jigsaw to shape knees, ribbing, and planking for ships. The up-and-down saw, was used in this country from the s until early in the s.
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Therefore, most boards used in the construction of early cupboards show signs of being cut with an up-and-down saw. The circular saw although introduced in the mid s could not be made big enough and powerful enough to cut lumber of the size used in furniture construction until The circular saw was limited to cutting thin pieces of wood such as shingles, clapboards, and laths until the early s.
Cupboards and other furniture in which the large size boards used in their construction are circular saw cut can date to , but usually date after The rough sawed lumber used in furniture construction was smoothed with either a hand held plane, or a planing machine. The hand held plane was used in this country from the beginning until after Planing machines were experimented with early in the s.
Two early experiments are the Woodworth planer in and the Daniels planer in However, a perfected machine was not developed until Lawsuits over patent rights prevented its use until Machine plane marks are of some use in dating cupboards made as early as , but machine plane marks usually suggest a construction date of or later.
The introduction of the modern looking butt hinge used to hold doors on cupboards dates to Before , hinges were made one at a time by a blacksmith. The first butt hinges were made out of cast iron.
They were thick and heavy. By , cast iron hinges became thinner as manufacturers tried to squeeze more hinges out of each pound of iron.
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By , the use of cast iron in the making of butt hinges was discontinued in favor of stamped steel. The common wood screw underwent a major change in when T. Sloan of New York City invented the first machine to mass-produce this item. Sloan holds many patents for cutting threads, shaping points, and forming the heads of screws. Before , all screws were handmade and the slot in the top of the screw was hand cut with a hacksaw. Seldom was the cut placed exactly in the center. Because the new machine made screw was inexpensive, it was readily accepted by cabinetmakers.
Items made after are made using this new screw. For the first ten years of production, machine made screws were made with no slot in their head.
Dating cabinet hardware. How To Update Kitchen Cabinets for Under $ - Houselogic
The slot still had to be cut by hand with a hacksaw. Country furniture made with these screws can easily be dated to the ten-year period The Mercer library contains materials on both machine made screws and methods of cutting screws by hand. In , cast iron latches became available to cabinetmakers. After the introduction of the cast iron latch, most cabinetmakers used this new feature in place of the little wooden turnstile that had been used for centuries.
In the South and Midwest, hand-cast brass latches were in use before These early latches were inlaid into cabinet doors rather than being attached to the surface, as were the later cast iron latches. Dealers who specialize in country and primitive furniture have depended on the above methods plus the study of nails for dating their antiques. Many dealers feel that the technological system is superior to the stylistic system. Furniture styles linger for years. New technologies, because they bring cheaper prices or faster methods, are accepted quickly — usually within a year or two.
The Dating of Old Houses, a paper prepared by Dr.
Mercer, contains photographs, drawings, and patent information on nails, hinges, screws, hardware, planing machines, etc. The screw above was handmade. The slot in the top was hand cut by a hacksaw. The screw on the right was machine made. The slot in its head was cut by a machine.
There are many differences between a handmade and a machine-made screw. The shank of a handmade screw does not taper. The point of the handmade screw is blunt. By contrast, the shaft of the machine made screw tapers to a point.
The threads are cut evenly and they pitch at a different angle than those of the handmade screw. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. File File history File usage Metadata Size of this preview: This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Information from its description page there is shown below.
Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Summary Description Kitchen cabinet hardware in Cabinet hardware on display in a home store. For use in article "Kitchen cabinets". The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file pages on other projects are not listed:.